Cardio machines: big scam in the fitness industry


Have you noticed walking into any gym what the most popular pieces of fitness equipment are being used? I guess by the title of this article you should know it’s cardio machines (treadmills, elliptical trainers, stationary bikes, rowing machines, steppers). Some gyms have up to 100 pieces of various cardio machines with virtually every one of them being used at the same time. I have seen sign-up lists and time limits of 20 minutes being placed on individual machines. The questions I would like to bring up:

  • Why do people use cardio machines?
  • Are they really necessary for weight loss and fitness?
  • What are the negative aspects of using cardio machines?
  • Who benefits most from people exercising on cardio machines?
  • Is there a better way to get the results people are searching for?

The number one reason for the popularity of cardio machines is that they are marketed as a great way for losing weight. People like numbers. They like to see the calories clicking off on the digital screen in front of them. The numbers can validate an effort you put forth. They can make you feel good because they indicate you have burned some fat or it justifies having some desert later that night.

The problem is that the calories the machine says you have burnt is WRONG.

Think about this: two females of the same age and weight get onto identical treadmills. They both walk at four miles per hour, at a five degree incline for 45 minutes. If they both did the same work and entered the same information into the treadmill, the readouts of calories expended are identical.

But what if one person exercised regularly and was fit while the other person was a beginner just starting out? The beginner is destroyed trying to finish the workout and the fit person found the routine a stroll in the park. The intensity of the workout was much more difficult for one person than the other. The beginner would have burned many more calories than the fit person because the workout was hard for them. Cardio machines can not differentiate the fitness level of each individual.

Manufacturers of fitness equipment program their machines to show calorie readouts based on metabolic equations. These equations are just estimates and cannot take into account all the variables in caloric expenditure. I would say most people burn about 30 per cent less calories than a typical cardio machine indicates.

The other reasons I think people use cardio machines are:

  • They are expensive and fancy looking (they must be good for you).
  • Some have televisions to reduce boredom (if you can watch television while training, in my opinion you are not training hard enough).
  • They are simple to use (people don’t want to think about what they are doing, are too busy or uneducated to design a better workout for themselves).
  • Other people are using them (they must be good for you thought process).
  • I get a great sweat it must be doing something. If you are riding a stationary bike at the same intensity level as a bike outdoors you would sweat much more inside. In the outdoors there is better air and wind circulation, indoors you are right beside other people and machines that give off heat. Just because you are warm and sweaty does not mean you are getting a great workout).

The other big reason I believe people use cardio machines is that they can take and monitor their heart rate easily. Have you noticed the heart rate zone charts right on the machines? The charts recommend you do not work past a certain point with your heart rate depending on your age.

The problem is that the charts are WRONG.

Like the calorie readouts, they are based on formulas that are incorrect for your body. Let me give you something to think about. One day I am out running with my business partner Jeff Woods, and we both have heart rate monitors on. We are going up the long steep hill by the Kinsmen Field House in Edmonton. At the top we check our heart rates I am at 182 beats per minute while Jeff is at 206. We are tired but not maxed out.

If I were to follow the traditional formula they use for heart rate zone training (220-age = max heart rate) it would be a bit off for me and extremely off for Jeff. I theoretically should only be able to get my heart rate to 178 and Jeff to 171 beats per minute (also, here is where you can do the math to figure out how old we are).

The heart rate charts on cardio machines recommend you work between 70 per cent and 85 per cent of your max heart rate. For me that would be between 124 to 151 and for Jeff it’s 119 to 145 beats per minute. Here are the issues.

Jeff’s real max heart rate is 215 beats per minute, not 171 which the formula predicts. The adjusted training zone for him should be between 151 to 183 beats per minute. If he followed the heart rate zones on cardio machines he would be wasting his time. Minimal to no training effect would occur for the time he invests in exercising.

Do we need to have our heart rates in a training zone at all? Manufacturers of cardio machines and gym owners claim you need to do “cardio” to lose fat and improve your endurance. The term “cardio” to them refers to working at lower to moderate intensity levels in your aerobic training zone.

Do you remember hearing “You should be able to carry on a conversation” when you are working out, well that is WRONG too.

If your goal is to improve energy and endurance for everyday life activity, then you need to work anaerobically rather than aerobically. This is a level of exertion near your maximum ability. The duration is shorter but the intensity is high. Activities that we do which cause us exhaustion are shorter burst type activities that occur multiple times in the day. An example would be carrying a heavy basket of laundry up the stairs. Working at comfortable levels on a treadmill will not make you better at this.

Any sports we play involve short, high-intensity bouts of effort, like a 45-second shift in hockey, a 10-second play in football, a 20-second rally in tennis. Exercising at moderate intensity for 45 to 60 minutes on a stationary bike will not help you work the correct energy system in any sport unless you are training for cycling. Even then, races are lost during high intensity climbs on hills not cruising easily on the flats.

My other problem with cardio machines is the postural problems they create and the way people use them.


Most people that know me are familiar with my opinion on elliptical trainers. Probably the worst choice you can make for your time exercising. If you want to know the full details, I wrote an article devoted to this one piece which has caused quite a bit of controversy.


If your goal is to get better at running, then working on a treadmill is not a good idea. When running outside you have to push off the ground to get momentum to move your body forward against gravity and air. Your butt muscles are where you want to get power from since they are the biggest muscles in the body and are the primary movers of extending your hips.

On a treadmill, the ground beneath you is moving. Your goal is to maintain your position since the treadmill is trying to spit you off the back end. Your butt muscles are not forced to work as they should moving you forward. The opposing hip flexor muscles are involved more flexing your hips trying to keep you in the same position. In essence you are teaching your body an incorrect motor pattern and muscle recruitment sequence. When you try to run outside after working on a treadmill for long periods it will seem very difficult to do in comparison.

The other problem I have is with people holding on to the handrails. As soon as you touch the treadmill you are making the work load easy. I see so many people in gyms cranking up the incline to 15 degrees and hanging on to the rails for dear life. You are defeating the purpose of the treadmill. It is trying to shoot you off and you are supposed to stay on by working hard. Holding on is cheating. The machine says you walked or ran a certain distance but how much did you really do properly? You might as well stand on the side and let the belt on the machine run.


These have the same issues as the treadmills.

Stationary Bikes and Rowing Machines

The problem I have with these cardio machines is that they involve sitting. People already sit too much. To continue sitting while exercising reinforces poor posture. Your hamstrings, hip flexors, and chest muscles are placed in a shortened/tight position while your glutes and upper back muscles are in a lengthened/weak position. Being in this posture for long periods of time can cause poor length-tension relationships and affect proper movement of the body. Think of an elderly golfer who is hunched over trying to swing a golf club. When they are in a tight, collapsed fetal position proper rotation cannot be performed. If you have a desk job and sit most of your day, don’t go to the gym and do more sitting.

Repetitive action injury

For the past few decades, it was thought that “cardio” type activities should be done separate from resistance training. Cardio would be some kind of activity which involved doing the same motor action over and over again (like running or biking) for at least 30 minutes in duration three to five times per week. This was supposedly the best way to lose fat and make you fit.

A few problems exist with this methodology. First, doing the same action with your body thousands of times in a workout will excessively stress the specific prime movers of that action. This is especially true if your body has any muscular imbalances and does not distribute force evenly. For example some people have a poor running gait because of weakness or tightness in parts of their body. They leak energy laterally by rolling in at the ankles and knees and letting their hips collapse to the side. If you run for cardio and have gait issues, over time you will create a running related injury of some kind.

Another issue with repetitive action activities is that they do not make us better at the jobs our bodies are forced to do in a typical day. Most people want to be fitter so that they have more energy in their day. Think about what you want your body to be better at.

If you are a stay-at-home mom, think about all the different body movements you do daily:

  • Squatting down to wipe something off the floor your kids spilled
  • Bending over to get groceries out of the trunk of your car
  • Sprinting after your kids to stop them from running onto the road
  • Playing follow the leader with your children on the playground equipment
  • Pushing and pulling the vacuum cleaner while lifting the sofa with one arm to clean underneath
  • Kneeling and bent over washing the bath tub

Does it make sense to get on a cardio machine, perform the same muscular action thousands of times, on a fixed artificial apparatus, keeping your heart rate in a specific training zone. Will this make you better in your day?

This same logic applies to anyone wanting to be a better athlete. Think about the sport you play. Most sports involve quick accelerations and decelerations. You change directions, move in multiple planes of motion, and need hand-eye coordination. Most sports as well as most daily activities we engage in involve quick short bursts of energy, not slow, long duration sustained bouts of effort.

The first thing to deteriorate as we age is the speed and power of our body. People in their senior years can still have decent muscular endurance but our fast twitch muscle fibers deteriorate more quickly than the slow twitch. It would be normal to see a 60- or 70-year-old going for a jog but it would be bizarre to see an elderly person jump and scale a chain-link fence.

The goal of most people is to preserve their youth as long as possible. The best way to do this is spend some time doing speed and explosive-type work. The reason most people do not is that it’s uncomfortable, and we’re inherently lazy. We choose to do what every one else is doing, what may be thought as safer, what is easier.

There is no denying the propaganda of cardio machine manufacturers and gym owners. Together they make people believe that you either have to buy a cardio piece for your home or pay gym fees to get your body lean and fit.

This is the best way… or is it?

What if I tell you instead of spending $3,000+ dollars on a good treadmill or wasting money on gym dues monthly just to use their cardio equipment you can get a better training effect by a one-time purchase of $200 or less? Buy some used dumbbells, a stability ball, maybe a medicine ball, skipping rope or an agility ladder. Not only can you get a good cardio workout but you can train every other component of fitness at the same time:

  • Muscular endurance of every joint in multiple planes of movement
  • Core strength
  • Balance and stability
  • Flexibility
  • Postural improvements
  • Speed, Agility and Power
  • Expend a great deal of energy which burns fat and elevates metabolism.

If you are going to invest some time to exercise why not maximize the benefits your body will receive?

The best way to improve your cardio fitness, reduce fat and make you functionally fit using all the joints, muscles and movement patterns your body can perform is free-weight circuit type exercise. An example circuit for a beginner would be:

  1. Body weight squats – 15 reps
  2. Push ups, hips on the stability ball – 15 reps
  3. Stationary lunges body weight – 10-15 reps per leg
  4. Bent over dumbbell rows 12-15 lbs – 15 reps
  5. Step-ups to bench body weight – 10-15 reps per leg
  6. One-leg balance shoulder press 5-8 lbs – 10 reps per leg
  7. Dumbbell torso rotations 5-8 lbs – 10 reps per side
  8. Lying on stability ball elbow extensions 8-12 lbs – 15 reps
  9. Stiff leg dead lift with bicep curl 10-15 lbs – 15 reps
  10. Plank off the knees or toes body weight – 30 – 60 sec hold.

Look at all the different movements you are performing. There are squatting, lunging, bending, twisting, pushing, and pulling exercises. You are working all the muscles in your body in all the movements it is designed to perform for you to exist. The idea is to move from one exercise to the other with little or no rest.

Do all ten exercises in a row and repeat for three sets. It should take about 45 minutes to complete. You will get an incredible cardio workout by lifting weights plus all the other benefits cardio machines do not give you.

Never think cardio is separate from weight training. The muscular system, cardiovascular system and nervous system all work together so that your body can do whatever you ask of it.

The only hard part is getting some help from a professional to get a program set up specific for your fitness level.

After reading this article many people may still have the mentality that using a cardio machine is better than doing nothing. It is this type of thinking that allows people to settle for mediocrity. You can improve your fitness and burn some fat using cardio machines and if you just love the elliptical then by all means do it. Just don’t use cardio machines if you think it is the best way to go.

It isn’t.

28 replies
  1. Jackie says:

    I agree with the article – to a certain extent. As a runner, I follow the accepted practices of varying my running routines: long, slow distance, speed intervals, hill repeats, fartleks, tempo runs, etc. I prefer to run outside, but due to extenuating weather conditions, have resorted to the treadmill instead of missing out on my regular routine.

    That being said, I never considered running to be the “be-all and end-all” and always followed up with things such as push-ups, dips, weights, etc.

    I also signed up with a personal trainer to employ a more aggressive cross-training routine for overall fitness.

    I agree that a treadmill is not the fitness answer — but can be a helpful tool when used properly and intelligently as part of an overall fitness program.

  2. Leah says:

    I agree with Jackie. I’m not running in Montréal on ice in running shoes 8 months of the year. The treadmill IS better than nothing when you want to run. I do all the other things Paul listed in his suggested workout at least three times a week but running is a BIG part of my fitness routine and I need a treadmill in the winter months. As for what Paul says about elliptical machines, stationary bikes, etc., I agree with him 100%. I don’t go to the gym to sit or WATCH TV!! That’s another of my pet peeves too! Overall – great blog!

  3. Paula says:

    As a new runner I much prefer to run outside and avoid the machines.

    HOWEVER…I have an injury, which I’m being treated for. Until I get orthotics, my physio and podiatrist have recommended that I avoid exercise that involves any pounding (i.e. running) – so they recommended the elliptical to keep up my “running stamina”, so to speak. I do lots of cross-training and enjoy the type of workout he describes, but I feel like I need at least 30 minutes of straight cardio just so I don’t lose that stamina!

  4. Tanya says:

    Paul knows what he is talking about. Why would you want to spend 45 minutes doing the same movement on a cardio machine all the while gaining little benefit to your overall fitness and health? You can spend the same amount of time doing plyometrics (body weight) type exercises that are a lot more challenging and more interesting, and you will see a greater benefit in a shorter period of time. I have personally worked with Paul and although he does have a few treadmills and stationary bikes in his gym, none of his clients use these for anything but a quick 5-10 minute warm-up prior to the real workout. Try using REAL stairs people and see how long you can do that for! (I bet less than 45 mins but you will have worked harder than ever)

  5. Glen says:

    Merry Christmas and happy holidays every1.
    I totally agree with Paul on this one (no I’m not being a suck up 🙂 ).
    I developed pains in my legs from running on the treadmill (constant pounding) but I love the cardio rush so I either go to an indoor track (wintertime) or a martial art like Tae Kwon Do.
    Both are amazing and better than machines.
    Also the cost of a treadmill would kill me 🙂

  6. David says:

    Paul, I hear what you’re saying but… knees are shot from years of basketball and 3 surgeries later, cycling for me is a great workout. Running, stairs, lunges, etc cause pain and swelling in my knees and would force multiple days of rest between workouts.

    I make my cycling as intense as possible over 30 minutes by doing intervals of 1 minute at max HR and 1 minute active rest at 60% Max HR. I do this 5 days a week on top of weight training. I don’t count calories burned and use my morning resting heart rate as my measure of success (currently 40 bpm).

    My point? Fitness is really an individual thing and needs to be approached that way. Generalizing that all cardio machine workouts are no good is not fair.

  7. Nadine says:

    I know that I use the treadmill too often, but i when i started to train in April this year for my first half marathon (first race ever actually) in September, I only ran on the treadmill on the weekends and on the indoor track at the gym on weekdays. I think the only reason why i was able to finish the half (3 hr 9 min…10 min running 1 min walking…goal was 3hr but had to take potty break in the middle of the race) was because i went to the gym at least 6 days a week for no less than 2 hours. I did a combination of cardio and strength training (using free weights, bars & plates or medicine ball)

    Because of Paul, I stayed away from the elliptical and instead did a circuit class, or step class, or boxfit class, or jog up and down those evil flights of stairs at my local YMCA. I’ve never used the readings on the machine to judge my heartrate or calories burned. I used it only to mark the amount of miles I had run. If I could feel my heart pounding and could only speak 2-3 words before having to take a breath, then to me I was getting a proper work out. In the end i discovered that i really like running and I plan to do more races in 2010 and better my time for the half when i do the race again in Sept.

    I’m curious to know if Paul is including the bikes used during a spinning class. The instructors at the classes i attend change their routine roughly every 6 weeks and we are never sitting down the entire class.

  8. jaimie says:

    I am not disagreeing with Paul as his arguments make sense to me , but I did drop 45 lbs using an eliptical machine twice a day 6 days a week.I am still about 10 lbs off my target so I will incorporate Pauls advice on training



  9. Lee Ann says:

    I’m doing everything I can, as a new runner who recently completed a half-marathon, to stay on the road and not have to resort to a gym or any of the machines in it, despite the ice, snow, and cold. Tech gear works wonders, as do strap-on ice cleats. It just feels better to train on the road, and I might start cold, but I certainly don’t finish cold, at all.

    And Tanya, yes ma’am, the real stairs are the real deal: in Montréal, I do my hill training on Mont Royal’s bike path, and there’s a fantastic set of stairs that’s about 10 flights high that takes you to one of the lookouts. It’s a 4km run for me from my home up the hill to the stairs, and then I take the stairs up and down at least twice. Burns like crazy, but on the rest of the run home, I feel like a rock star.

    I love that so many trainers like Paul are encouraging people to use their own bodies as resistance for training. You get the benefits of strength training along with a great cardio workout, and on the days when I just can’t deal with the snow in my face, that’s my alternative workout. Also, I never have the excuse that I can’t get to the gym. Dude, I AM the gym.

  10. Alison says:

    Loved the blog, I entirely agree with what you say about the “numbers” being attractive to a vast majority of the gym users, who perform the same routine 365 days per year. My observation is that they are there until they hit a certain number and then go home and pour a glass of wine equivalent to the number they think they have burned off! The treadmill is a great piece of kit during the winter months when road running could cause more harm than good in slippery conditions, the trick is to work hard and intense, to gain benefits. I find it boring just getting on there and running at the same pace for 30/40mins, I’d much rather after a warm up complete a really intense interval training session that includes inclines and speed work and get off there, followed with some jump rope, weights and core routines. Keep the blogs coming, I love them.

  11. Jennifer says:

    Great info. I can relate to te repetition problems. My problem, is that most of the health clubs trainers encourage you to exercice on those machines. If someone could refere me a coach who would do outdoor training I would be more then happy to try the type of training that you recommand. Thank you very much!

  12. Andrea says:

    While I of course agree with Paul on the fact that not everyone gets the same work out on one of these machines, I do want to note that he admitted that someone who is out of shape can get a quality work out, “The beginner is destroyed trying to finish the workout and the fit person found the routine a stroll in the park. The intensity of the workout was much more difficult for one person than the other”.

    It is important not to discredit these machines completely, as they often are a starting place for those who are too shy, nervous, out of shape, etc., to join a circuit training class or do more high intensity work outs. Everyone has to start somewhere.

  13. Cory Willoughby says:

    I agree to an extent but if you have a bad injury (knee gone) you need to adapt. I loved running but my knee did not. I do weight workouts with a trainer and then do spin classes. They kick my butt! Are you telling me that a spin class is not a good cardio workout?? I just can’t wrap my head around that.

  14. new mom says:

    Of course, I absolutely agree with Paul on this subject as well. Whenever I have discussions with females in my life about weight loss and getting into shape, they do not want to believe it when I tell them that they don’t need to spend a dime to get there. Then I go into detail about the exercises Paul has shown to the people on X-Weighted, and how they can be done in your own home, with whatever you already own. But it’s like talking to a brick wall because I’m telling them that they can get the answers for free simply by watching the show or going online, and yet, they resort to looking for a quick solution for which they are willing to spend any number of dollars. And in the end, my weight problem was resolved and theirs remained. I just cannot understand why someone wouldn’t take advice from someone who was successful at the same challenge. And then it hits me: people don’t want to get fit, they want an excuse to stay the same as they are, and something to complain about.

    Okay, rant over. Thanks, Paul. Great article.

  15. Jen Bussey says:

    I agree with Paul… However, I am guilty of using the cardio machines when I go to the gym! It’s just so easy to tack 20min of cardio on after a strength training session. I also like to use cardio equipment as part of circuit training sometimes… But when I plan an intense cardio session, I try to focus on functional activity like running or cycling outside.

  16. Gisele says:

    I agree Paul is very right especially the part where he talks about the posture, I did notice using the tredmill that I was all off kilter and I really noticed my hips hurting a lot and after reading what he said now it all makes sense, so these machines do throw off your posture.

  17. JoJo says:

    I adore Paul and what he stands for but I’m struggle to agree re the cardio machines (I keep thinking he ‘must be right’, haha). I lost 30 pounds 8 years ago and have kept it off, I only do cardio machines, I cannot run due to a bad ankle break 20 years ago (and now resulting hip issues). I recently lost 4 pounds because I upped the intensity on my eliptical. Isn’t doing this better than sitting on the couch!!?


  18. Kirsten says:

    the machines are a good supplement to other workouts but nothing beats the challenge of trying to walk on snow and ice… works a lot of muscles. it’s not for everyone but i prefer the great outdoor gym!

  19. Heather Baxter says:

    I agree with you 100 percent Paul. Love your article. You are the best. Keep up the fantastic work! Merry Ho Ho 🙂

  20. cami says:

    I also agree with paul, i much prefer running outside or at an indoor track, i find it more exciting and interesting, it also makes the time go by faster. I also love swimming and sometimes i go to the gym and go on the punching bag and skip rope for a while. I have an excercise ball at home and free weights and i also have quite a few workout videos that i like to do. My problem is that i don’t have much of an imagination and don’t really know what to do on my own unless i do watch a video. But i find that when i watch weight loss shows like x-weighted and the last ten pounds boot camp, i get some ideas. I personaly don’t like the eliptical or the starionary bike, i prefer using a real bike and going outside or taking a briske walk up some hills. But i guess its all preference, i don’t have any education in this stuff, but after warching Paul’s show i do have the upmost confidence in his opinion and experitse.

  21. paul says:

    Thanks for the feedback everyone. Just to point out I am not saying you can’t lose weight, burn calories or work hard on a cardio machine. It is just that there are better options out there. No matter what your rationale: sore joints, convenience, good results cardio machines are not your BEST choice. It is my job as a trainer to guide the person to the best program possible for them depending on what they want to achieve. If you absolutely love using cardio machines by all means enjoy yourself, I have no problem with that. I just don’t want people to think because of false advertising and the popularity of the machines that this is the best way to go to improve fitness. If you are going to invest your valuable time, get the most out of your workout that will benefit your body for the goals you have.

  22. Joanne Appleyard says:

    You rock Paul! Thanks for the reply ….
    Perhaps it’s time I opened up my mind to other options but I’ve had some nice successes with what I’ve done in the last 8 years.


  23. Suzanne says:

    I’m a treadmill fiend, I’m afraid and I think one thing Paul has overlooked is that those of us with kids at home can’t leave them unattended while we go out for a run. I’ve has my baby buckled into her carrier while running on my treadmill since she was a few days old (she’s now 5 1/2). The sound of my pounding feet would send her to sleep at naptime!
    I never look at “calories burned” when running as I assume this is probably wildly inaccurate. I run because it’s a great way to deal with anxiety and yes I feel fitter and stronger. I combine my run with free weights and stretching exercises.

    Also aren’t treadmills meant to be easier on the joints than sidewalks?

  24. Rosie says:

    Great article, I just joined a gym 2 months ago, I have not lost much weight, but have lost inches, what’s up with that??? Okay, the Christmas chocolates don’t help, I know. After watching X-weighted religiously, I have done some of the toning and body weight type strength training and have found it very beneficial, love the plank!!! I’m too embarrassed to do the ball exercises in case I fall in the gym, so instead I lift weights. I’m also running, and yes, it’s anaerobic running as I’m just exhausted and really push myself hard, no watching tv etc. I find my cardio capacity has increased greatly, I feel I can breathe better now and not get winded running upstairs. Because of an injury I’m very careful and bike indoors at a great intensity. My question by the way is what is #9? Stiff leg dead lift with bicep curl? How about pictures next time? Thanks again Paul, you’re the best.

  25. Bertis says:

    Great article – I agree almost entirely. Using your own body weight and changing up your routine regularly are key to fitness and weight loss but so many people don’t seem to get it. I watch people crank out the same routines day after day, chatting with the person on the next treadmill. But when I get them in a class and force them to use their own body weight in short bursts, they just about die. Paul’s right – most people don’t work hard enough. It’s not how much time you spend working out, it’s how intense and varied your workouts are. Pick up your own body weight and move it around in short, intense intervals. It’s tough but it works!

  26. Linda says:

    I am so glad that If my heart rate isn’t under 150 I’m supposed to slow down, I was told by someone who is supposed to know about this stuff to keep my heart rate down or I would be burning my lean muscle, I tried for a month and didn’t feel like the workout was even worth the time so now I go till I can’t anymore then I push it a little further. Feels so much better. I too run on the treadmill but hope to run outside once the weather improves (I hate the cold!!!) The only thing I use the treadmill information for is for my own improvement. If I burned more calories it is because I worked a little harder I don’t consider it an invitation to eat more. I also dislike when people have the incline a 12 and hang on for dear life, what is the point???

  27. Corinne says:

    Hi Paul

    Love the show and great blog.

    In this entry you give a beginner cardio circuit workout. Most of the exercises I know how to do however, some I am not sure.

    Where can I get a video demo or a description of what you mean by the differnt exercises?


  28. Shelley says:

    Thanks for the informative article. It really makes a lot of sense. That being said, as a stay-at-home mother who runs, I wouldn’t part with my treadmill for anything. I also wouldn’t run outside in the New Brunswick winters for anything! Balance is key, I guess!

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